The Sultan's Palace is the home of the Sultan, Jasmine, and most recently Aladdin and Abu. The palace appears in all Aladdin related media. The design is loosely based on the Taj Mahal, which is located in India.
The palace is located in the center of Agrabah, and can be seen from anywhere in the town. The palace itself is surrounded by high walls, with a main gate granting entrance. A small area on the wall is outfitted for the Sultan to make speeches and announcements to the people. When Jafar assumes control of Agrabah for a while, he orders the Genie to move the Palace to a high mountain near the city.
The Palace itself is mostly white in color, with golden domed roofs. There are multiple towers of varying sizes. Inside, there are various rooms that are used by the Sultan and his family. Outside, in the area between the walls and the building itself is a large garden, as well as a fountain.
Places of Interest
Throne Room: Where the Sultan governs Agrabah from day to day. In the center point is a large throne shaped like an elephant, though it changes to a cobra during Jafar's short reign.
Jafar's Lair: A hidden area of the palace, where Jafar does most of his plotting. It includes the various instruments he uses in his sorcery. It can be assumed that it's now guest quarters. It's behind the walls of Jafar's room.
Jafar's Room: Where Jafar gets some rest and use from the opium hookah he has. Jafar's lair is behind of the wall of this place. This room is very spacious, has red walls, and it's very dark.
Dungeon: Where prisoners are held. A disguised Jafar meets Aladdin here to convince the boy to enter the Cave of Wonders.
Jasmine's Room: The personal quarters of Princess Jasmine. The room opens up to a large balcony.
Garden: Where Jasmine usually spends time with Rajah. It is surrounded by large walls and also works as a back entry way into the palace. There are doves and a large fountain.
Toy Room/Storage Room: Where the Sultan keeps various things, including a model of Agrabah.
The palace serves as a major setting in all Aladdin films as well as the TV series. In Aladdin, Jasmine considers the palace to be something of a prison, as she at first tires of her life as a princess. Meanwhile, Aladdin dreams of living there. Later in the film, Jafar has the Genie move the palace to a nearby mountain overlooking the city (as he wanted to "rule on high"), though it is restored to its original location at the end of the film. In The Return of Jafar and Aladdin (TV series), it shows that Aladdin doesn't live in the palace, but he regularly visits it. In Aladdin and the King of Thieves, the palace serves as the site of Aladdin and Jasmine's wedding.