|The Little Mermaid|
November 14, 1989
The Little Mermaid is an animated film produced by Walt Disney Feature Animation and first released on November 14, 1989 by Walt Disney Pictures. The twenty-eighth animated feature in the List of Disney theatrical animated features, the film is based upon the Hans Christian Andersen fairy tale "The Little Mermaid." The film grossed over $111 million in the U.S. and an additional $99 million worldwide, and is given credit for breathing life back into the animated feature film genre after a string of critical and commercial failures beginning in the early 1980s. However, Ariel was criticized severely by women, saying that it wasn't ideal for Ariel's only motive to be pursuing a man; nearly all Disney movies are controversial for things such as this, but unlike the others this is the first time the company did something as a result: have their heroines have an interest other than a man (ex: Belle has a love for Reading, Tiana is into cooking, Rapunzel enjoys arts and crafts,etc.). It should be noted, however, that Ariel did have a motive other than being with a man, as she intended to see the human world even before meeting Eric.
A musical stage adaptation of the film with some differences opened on Broadway in 2007 or more early 2008, and closed on August 30, 2009. The musical's book is by Doug Wright, music by Alan Menken and lyrics by the late Howard Ashman (written for the film) and new lyrics by Glenn Slater. The musical had a try-out in Denver in September, then in November moved to Broadway. The musical officially opened on January 10, 2008. The musical will have had 685 performances and 50 previews.
PlotThe film starts with several sailors singing "Fathoms Below" while sailing the ocean. Some of them tell about the merpeople's ruler, King Triton, to a young prince named Eric. His guardian, Grimsby, denies the myth although a sailor insists that it is true. He holds a fish to Grimsby which loses his grip and falls back to the ocean, relieved. It swims along with other sea creatures and multiple merpeople in the kingdom of Atlantica swimming to Triton's palace for a concert being held by the court composer, Sebastian the crab. The concert starts as Triton looks at Sebastian approvingly, happy to see his daughters singing. As each of his six daughters comes out and introduces themselves, they open the stage for Ariel, the seventh and youngest, to make her stage debut, though to their shock she is not in the shell ("Daughters of Triton"). Sebastian looks on in horror as Triton angrily calls out his youngest daughter's name, to which the scene switches to a shipwreck in a dark part of the ocean and the young Ariel commenting to her best friend, the cowardly atlantic yellow and blue young tropical fish Flounder, asking, "Isn't it fantastic?".
Flounder tries to worm his way out of going into the ship, but when Ariel agrees that he can stay out and watch for sharks, the young fish immediately follows the curious and brave mermaid into the ship. As they explore she finds a pipe and a fork, of which she examines with excitement. As she does Flounder gets a bad feeling only to see a shark waiting outside. As he screams the shark crashes in and chases both, Ariel maneuvering around slickly to avoid the hungry beast. Nearly escaping, Flounder runs into the ship's mast and becomes dizzy, almost eaten until Ariel saves him and the shark becomes stuck in an anchor. Flounder sticks his tongue out at the shark, remarking him a "big bully", though the shark comes close again to almost eating the small fish whom rushes to Ariel's side. Ariel joking exclaims Flounder to be "such a guppy", though he denies it and says, "am not".
Swimming to the surface, she meets a seagull, Scuttle, who has inaccurate knowledge of the human world and their objects. Ariel shows him the fork first, to which he incorrectly identifies it as a "dinglehopper", of which humans used to comb their hair. She then shows him the pipe, or the "banded bulbous snarfblatt" as he calls it, a musical device. As he blows into it for a tune only to get seaweed and fish, Ariel suddenly remembers about the concert and begins to panic, stuffing her treasures back into her bag and rushing off.
Unknown to anyone, all of this is being observed by Ursula, an evil half-octopus, half-woman, sea-witch, who for many years has been seeking a way to exact her revenge upon King Triton for banishing her from the kingdom. She gets an idea from seeing Ariel and sees her as the perfect pawn in her quest to rule the seas and orders her two lackey eels, Flotsam and Jetsam, to keep an eye on the girl, as she may have what it takes to have Triton lose his power and for Ursula herself to claim it.
Ariel is at the palace now, being scolded by her father (and Sebastian, too, as it made him a laughing-stock) about missing the concert until Flounder tries to help. He explains about the sunken ship, the shark chase (of which both Triton and Sebastian give each other annoyed looks, not beliving the small fish) and finally how Scuttle would not stop talking, to which Triton becomes angry and asks Ariel if she really did visit the surface. As Flounder hides behind an angry Ariel, she tries to soften it with "nothing happened", though this does not ease Triton's worry and disappointment at all. He begins to scold her once more, though Ariel defends herself this time, claiming that she's sixteen years old, though Triton tells her as long she lives under his ocean she'll abide by his rules. Unable anymore, Ariel swims off crying, hurt by her father's inability to understand.Triton tells Sebastian his concern and asks if he's being too hard, though Sebastian disagrees and tells Triton that Ariel needs constant discipline. Triton suddenly smiles while listening, tells Sebastion that he's absolutely right, then sets the responsibility on Sebastian to watch Ariel, much to the crab's dismay. As he leaves the palace, beating himself up for opening his mouth, he sees Ariel sneaking away with her bag and follows her, only to find her go into her secret grotto. After a small struggle to get in, his jaw drops in awe, seeing the human treasures that Ariel has collected from cutlery to chests of jewels. He hides as Ariel asks Flounder why her father hates the world above, a place full of so many wonderful things. Ariel then expresses her desire to be free from the ocean, out in the world of humans, though at the end of her song she becomes sad again, reality showing that she may never have the dream she wishes ("Part Of Your World"). Sebastian falls down from a shelf, covered in human things like hooks and jewelery. He begins to go off on Ariel about her collection, though she makes the crab promise not to tell her father, as that he will never understand". Sebastian then calms himself and suggests going back to the palace, as Ariel is under a lot of pressure and needs something to drink. As he starts to take her back a looming shadow covers the grotto, causing the curious girl to go the surface, the reluctant Flounder and nerve-wrecked crab following. Ariel finds the ship and sailor's dancing, celebrating the young prince Eric's birthday. Ariel watches on before being found by Max, Eric's sheepdog, who licks her face before being called over by his master, whom Ariel sees and immediately falls in love with.
Scuttle flies in and almost ruins Ariel's cover, though she hushes him quickly as Grimbsy, Eric's valet, presents Eric with his gift; a large statue of Eric himself. Eric thanks Grimbsy as Max growls at it. Grimbsy only comments on how he "had hoped it would be a wedding present". Eric then asks Grimbsy not to start again, wondering if the old man is angry because Eric keeps turning down princesses. He then says he wants the woman and love to hit him out of nowhere, "bam, like lightning". Ironically as he says it a storm comes, a strong one (making him wish he had chosen better words), and throws the ship around, smashing it into rocks. The ships sinks and the crew tries to escape, though Eric becomes stuck while saving his dog. The ship explodes because of a fire started by the mass and lightning, hitting the fireworks. Ariel searches for Eric who is unconscious. She saves him and takes him to shore where the sun clears up.Sebastian gazes on in disbelief as Ariel sings to Eric, and she wants to be in his world now even more so. Max and Grimbsy come, though and Ariel flees into the ocean before they do. As she says good-bye Eric slightly wakes up to her voice, her image blinded by the sun. Grimbsy comes, delighted to find Eric and takes him back to the palace, thinking Eric's talk of Ariel as "taken in too much salt water". Max tries to get their attention to the young girl on the rocks, though they ignore him and go on. As they leave Ariel vows to fulfill her dream, no matter what ("Part Of Your World (Reprise)"). Ursula looks into the crystal ball and sees Ariel falling in love with the prince, so she will have her in the polyp garden.
Sebastian, fearful of the consequences for both Ariel and himself, decides to conceal these events from the King as well, including the fact that Ariel has fallen in love with Eric. The next Morning Ariel, still thinking about Eric, daydreams and sings to herself acting rather strangely around her family. Her Father and her sisters watch and suddenly release that Ariel is in love. Ariel cheerfully plays "Loves Me Not" with one of the ocean flowers and is determined to return to the surface and see Eric again. Sebastian tries to persuade her that the Ocean is her real home and she should forget about the Human World ("Under The Sea") but to no avail.Later, Triton attempts to extract from Sebastian the name of the man (or rather, mer-man) she is in love with. Paranoid that Triton already knows the truth, Sebastian reveals Ariel's secrets in a panic. When King Triton learns that his daughter has had any association with a human, he becomes furious and proceed to go to Ariel's grotto. From there, Flounder has a surprise for Ariel which is the statue of Eric that was intended to be his birthday present. She is delighted of the gift by Flounder and uses it as a replica when interacting with Eric. Triton subsequently enters, angered about the human artifacts of the grotto and her saving a human from drowning as these had resulted in her disobedience to her father. He confronts a shocked Ariel about his rules forbidding contact to the human world. He is further angered when she confesses her love to Eric and is not concerned that they are not the same species as Triton has responded in disbelief. Triton then punishes Ariel by destroying the artifacts and the statue and hurting her feelings, much to her refusal and sobs at the now empty grotto with a regretted Triton, Sebastian and Flounder.
Ursula decides that now is the time to make her move, and she assigns her pet eels Flotsam and Jetsam to bring Ariel to her underwater cave. There, Ursula makes a deal with the princess to transform Ariel into a human for three days. Within these three days, if she plans to remain a human, she must get from Eric the "kiss of true love"; otherwise she will transform back into a mermaid at sunset on the third day. If this happens, Ursula will own her very soul and wither her down into a polyp to join her garden of other lost merfolk. Sebastian tries to stop her, aware of the sea witch's trickery, but Ariel is bitter and blames him for telling her father about her love for Eric ("Poor Unfortunate Souls").As agreed, Ursula make a potion to change the little mermaid. As "payment", she takes Ariel's voice and makes her unable to speak, knowing that Eric remembers Ariel only by her voice. Ursula's spell traps Ariel in a bubble and splits Ariel's tail into two legs. As a result of the transformation, Ariel is naked from the waist down (with the exception of her breasts). After the bubble pops, Ariel struggles for breath and starts to drown, though Sebastian and Flounder rush to her rescue. Sebastian and Flounder drag Ariel to the surface in the iconic scene where she breaks into the sky and takes her first breath of air as a human. Her friends then take her toward the beach. Meanwhile we discover that Prince Eric has been searching far and wide for the girl who saved him, and sang to him with her beautiful voice. Ariel then wakes up and sees her new legs and wiggles her toes. She then is extremely happy that she is human.
Sebastian tries to convince Ariel to go back to Ursula and get her to give Ariel back her voice so she can go home with every other fish in the sea. Ariel gives him a sad look, to which Sebastian realizes she will be more unhappy. Reluctant, he gives in and agrees to help Ariel find Eric, commenting on "what a soft shell he's turned out to be". Scuttle then decides to help Ariel by dressing her up so she can look nice ("If you want to be a human, the first thing you got to do is dress like one"). He puts her in an old sail, unknowing it isn't really clothing. Eric who is out on a walk asks his dog, Max where the girl could be, though Max smells Ariel and her gang and rushes off. He comes and chases Sebastian and Ariel joyfully. Ariel climbs on a boulder to get away from Max, who only jumps up and licks her face. In a matter of minutes, Eric comes along and sees her sitting on a rock, wearing the ship's mast sheet tied on with ropes. His initial hopes that this familiar-looking girl is the one he is looking for are shattered when he learns that she can't speak. He has no idea who Ariel is and what she has done for him, and she is unable to tell him. He takes her back to the castle, thinking her to be from a shipwreck and greatly traumatized.
When they arrive at the castle, the maids are happy with Ariel as they wash the sail cloth and Ariel bathes in the private bath. Sebastian, whom was hiding in the sail (though it's not known how it got a pocket), somehow winds up in the kitchen where the chef, Louis, tries to cook him ("Les Poissons"). Sebastian escapes after the chef ruins the kitchen, Carlotta angry at him for causing a ruckus. Ariel tries to impress Eric at the dinner table but fails, as the information Scuttle gave her was wrong; she tries to comb her hair with the fork, though Eric looks on her with an odd glance (though she believes it's because she's being rude and doing it at the table, as later she still brushes her hair with it in her bedroom), and blowing into Grimbsy's pipe, thinking it is still musical, though only ash comes out and onto Grimbsy's face. Eric laughs to Carlotta's delight, who says that "that's the first time" she's seen Eric "smile in weeks". Ariel is pleased about this while Grimbsy tries to change to conversation by asking if Eric would like to take Ariel on a tour of his kingdom. He lifts his plate to where Ariel sees Sebastian. Grimbsy, who is still scolding Eric for not getting out, does not notice and Sebastian rushes to Ariel's plate where he hides. As he finishes with Eric, he remarks that they'd best eat before the crab runs off his plate, though his fork comes down on an empty plate, leaving Grimbsy confused.
That night Ariel watches on as Eric plays with Max, then goes to bed, content with being in the palace. Sebastian tries to give Ariel advice as well as complain, though the young mermaid falls asleep, leaving him to come to the conclusion that she is "truely hopeless". The day progresses as Eric takes Ariel on a tour with many laughable moments as Ariel sees everything with wonder. They try to end the day by taking a boat ride in a lagoon, with Sebastian revealing Ariel's name and trying to get the young couple to kiss ("Kiss the Girl"). However Ursula intervenes and has Flotsam and Jetsam overturn the boat, ruining the kiss, while Eric wants to carry Ariel with him. Thinking it was too close, Ursula decides to "take matters into her own hand" and creates a potion that transforms her into a human, calling herself 'Vanessa'. The scene switches to Eric playing his flute and watching Ariel, Grimbsy coming out to advise Eric; "better then any dream girl is one of flesh and blood", showing the kingdom's liking for Ariel, then leaves. Eric, unsure, throws his flute into the ocean and decides to go inside. Before he can though a mysterious woman is singing on the beach, Eric looking down, the voice being familiar. As the mist vanishes he sees Vanessa who is using Ariel's voice from her shell necklace. Eric stares on and becomes hypnotized, falling under the spell.
The next morning Ariel awakens as Scuttle comes in to tell them the news of Eric becoming hitched in the afternoon. Ariel, thinking it is her, rushes down stairs half way until she sees Vanessa clinging to Eric's arm. Eric unwillingly plans to marry her immediately much to Ariel's shock and heartbreak. Even Grimbsy is a little shocked and suggests for it to not happen, Eric demands the ceremony be ready as soon as sunset. Ariel flees, crying as Vanessa looks up, and then chuckles while looking down at her shell necklace.
The wedding ship takes off at sunset, which is when Ariel's deal with Ursula ends. Unknowingly to Vanessa, Scuttle spots her while staring in one of the boat's portholes and sees the reflection of Ursula in the mirror. He rushes towards Ariel and explains the situation. Sebastian swims off to inform Triton, Ariel and Flounder try to reach the galley, while Scuttle is assigned to distract the wedding party. Ariel jumps into the water and struggles to swim until Sebastian cuts loose some barrels, of which she grabs hold on. Flounder takes hold of the barrel and both rush off to the boat. With the help of various sea and air animals - and Eric's dog, Max - Scuttle brings the ceremony crashing down in a spectacular fashion, and Eric's sheepdog, Max bites Vanessa's bottom while she is fighting Scuttle. The nautilus shell around her neck snaps off and shatters on the deck; as Ariel climbs on board, her voice restored. Ursula's enchantment over Eric is broken and Eric rushes to Ariel. Realizing that Ariel was the girl who saved his life, Eric rushes to kiss her, but he is too late; the sun sets and Ariel transforms back into a mermaid, fin and all. Eric looks on, stunned as Ariel reaches up for help. Before he can, though, Vanessa transforms back into Ursula and charges to Ariel, taking her back into the ocean and leaving Eric with the words, "so long, lover boy". Eric now tries to help Ariel but fails.
Ursula explains to Ariel as they head off that she won't need to worry, she's after a much bigger fish to which Triton catches up with Ursula and attempts to destroy the contract she made with Ariel, but is unable to do so, Ursula laughing as she says, "The contract's legal, binding, and completely unbreakable, even for you!". Ursula then tries to persuade Triton into exchanging places with Ariel as the contract forms around her and begins to make her wither into a polyp. Triton looks on sad, and finally agrees, using his trident to sign it over Ariel's name. Before he can re-think his decision the contract now forms over him and makes him wither, though much faster then Ariel so he can not undo it. He becomes a worm and Ursula laughs on.
Ursula takes Triton's crown and trident and declares herself ruler of the ocean. Angered by this, Ariel confronts Ursula and lunges at her, beginning to throw her aside and prepares to destroy her, demanding authority as she is the new ruler. Eric, who has not given up on Ariel, however, dives into the sea and throws a harpoon at Ursula; it only hits the tip of her shoulder, but it distracts Ursula long enough for Ariel to be free. She orders Flotsam and Jetsam to drown Eric, but they are thwarted by Flounder and Sebastian. Ursula decides to destroy Eric herself, aiming the trident for a destructive blast. A not-so-happy Ariel pulls Ursula's hair back to stop her and ruins Ursula's aim, making her destroy her pet eels by mistake. Ursula shortly mourns their death although is soon enraged by Ariel and Eric for not being happy with her and fooling her. Ursula then grows to a giant and monstrous version of herself as Flounder and Sebastian witness her growth with fear. Ariel warns Eric to leave the ocean by the danger of Ursula's tenure although insists that he would not leave her. The Sea Witch then grows beyond the surface and towers the young couple frightened of her new size.
She then has power of all the ocean, producing a storm whilst having Ariel and Eric pulled away in the process as a wave overwhelms Eric away and having Ariel trapped in a maelstorm created by Ursula with the trident, which also summons shipwrecks on it. Ursula gleefully monitors the changes while Ariel clings on a rock in the whirlpool and notices Eric below a shipwreck, worried about him. Eric manages to get on one of the shipwrecks whilst Ursula spots Ariel and blasts her off which she then falls down to the eye of the whirlpool. Ursula then tries to use the trident to destroy Ariel, narrowly avoiding every blast. Eric notices this and decides to stop Ursula by having her killed by the shipwreck as he has an idea from its splintered bowsprit to defeat her and prevent Ariel's destruction. She prepares a blast that is presumed to be unavoidable for Ariel and slowly prepares it while Eric navigates the shipwreck to kill Ursula and pulls the wheel hard to port which as she then notices it, it impales her stomach, resulting in great pain for her. The bowsprit then conducts lightning which the electricity then affects Ursula and is electrocuted more and more along with the shipwreck until she explodes by the overloaded electricity. Under her last breaths, she drags the remains of the shipwreck with her melting tentacles as Sebastian and Flounder witness this. Eric has managed to escape to safety while she explodes and collapses to shore as he is exhausted as Ursula then fully dies.
Ursula's death then has her magic no longer in her control which the polyps in Ursula's garden, including Triton, are all changed back into merpeople. Noticing how sad his daughter is that she will not be in the world above, and realizing how much she is truly in love with Eric, Triton decides that if Ariel truly wants this to be happy, he'll allow it. Ariel watches in astonished delight as she is changed permanently into a human by her father. A bright light goes around her, her tail splits into two legs, and she emerges from the sea as Eric awakens and sees Ariel in a glittering blue dress. She runs into Eric's arms, and the two finally kiss, which changes directly to the final scene.
In the final scene, Ariel and Eric, who are married, are seen kissing on their wedding day. Both humans and merpeople turn out for the wedding, and Triton accepts Eric as a part of the family. Eric and Ariel sail away into the sunset, Triton creates a rainbow. Everyone waves goodbye. Then Ariel and Eric kiss again, as a chorus Reprise of "Part of Your World" plays and the movie fades to black, showing that they lived happily ever after (per the tradition of any traditional Disney film).
The Little Mermaid is an important film in animation history for many reasons:
- It marked a return to the musical format that made Disney films popular from the 1930s to the 1970s, after a test run with Oliver & Company the year before. It featured seven original songs by composer Alan Menken and lyricist Howard Ashman, who also served as the film's producer.
- It is the first Disney movie that shows a girl almost completely naked, though her front and back are never fully shown (This is the second, however, if one counts Cinderella showering in the beginning of Cinderella). The movie Mulan later repeats this when Mulan is stripped of her clothes in shadow form, and the bath scene.
- It had the most special effects for a Disney animated feature since Fantasia was released forty-nine years earlier. Effects animation supervisor Mark Dindal estimated that over a million bubbles were drawn for this film, in addition to the use of other processes such as airbrushing, backlighting, superimposition, and some flat-shaded computer animation.
- The Little Mermaid was a box office success and grossed over $200,000,000 worldwide.
- This film marked the first use of CAPS in a Disney feature, seen in the movie's final scene. CAPS is a digital ink-and-paint and animation production system that colors the animators' drawings digitally, as opposed to the traditional animation method of tracing ink and paint onto cels (see Traditional animation). All subsequent 2D animated Disney features have used CAPS instead of ink-and-paint, with Home on the Range as the last one.
- This film signaled a renaissance in Disney animation; the films were popular and financial successes, causing Disney's feature animation department to begin significant expansion, from about 300 artists in Under the Sea to 2,400 by Academy Award for Best Song. In fact, The Little Mermaid was Disney's first significant animated success since The Rescuers in 1977.
- The Little Mermaid won the 1990 Academy Award for Original Music Score. "Kiss the Girl" and "Under the Sea" were nominated for the Academy Award for Best Song; the Oscar went to "Under the Sea".
- The soundtrack, riding high on the heels of the film's popularity and the Academy, Golden Globes and Grammy Awards, went triple platinum, an unheard-of feat for an animated movie at the time.
- The Little Mermaid started the Disney Renaissance which lasted until the Theatrical Release of Tarzan.
|Daughters of King Triton||Triton's daughters|
|Part of Your World||Ariel|
|Part of Your World (Reprise)||Ariel|
|Under the Sea||Sebastian & Sea Creatures|
|Poor Unfortunate Souls||Ursula|
|Les Poissons||Chef Louis|
|Kiss the Girl||Sebastian|
|Part of Your World (Finale)||Chorus|
In 1986, "The Great Mouse Detective" co-director Ron Clements discovered a collection of Hans C. Andersen's fairy tales while browsing a bookstore. He presented a two-page draft of a movie based on "The Little Mermaid" to CEO Michael Eisner, who passed it over, because at that time the studio was in development on a sequel to Splash. But the next day, Walt Disney Pictures boss Jeffrey Katzenberg, green-lighted the idea for possible development, along with "Oliver & Company".
That year, Clements and "Great Mouse Detective" co-director John Musker expanded the two-page idea into a 20-page rough script, eliminating the role of the mermaid's grandmother and expanding the roles of the Merman King and the sea witch. However, the film's plans were momentarily shelved as Disney focused its attention on "Who Framed Roger Rabbit" and "Oliver & Company" as more immediate releases.
In 1987, songwriter Howard Ashman became involved with Mermaid after he was asked to contribute to "Oliver & Company". He proposed changing the minor character Clarence, the English-butler crab, to a Jamaican Rastafarian crab and shifting the music style throughout the film to reflect this. At the same time, Katzenberg, Clements, Musker, and Ashman changed the story format to make Mermaid like an animated Broadway musical. Ashman and Alan Menken (composer) teamed up to compose the entire songtrack. In 1988, with "Oliver" out of the way, Mermaid was slated as the next major Disney release.
More money and resources were dedicated to Mermaid than any other Disney animated film in decades. The artistic manpower needed for Mermaid required Disney to farm out most of the bubble-drawing in the film to Pacific Rim Productions, a China-based firm with production facilities in Beijing.
Principal artists worked on the animation - Glen Keane and Mark Henn on Ariel, Duncan Marjoribanks on Sebastian, Andreas Deja on King Triton and Ruben Aquino on Ursula. Originally, Keane had been asked to work on Ursula, as he had established a reputation for drawing large, powerful figures (the bear in The Fox and the Hound, Professor Ratigan in The Great Mouse Detective.) Keane, however, was assigned as one of the two lead artists on the petite, charming Ariel and oversaw the "Part of Your World" musical number.
Another first for recent years was that live actors and actresses were filmed for reference material for the animators. Broadway actress Jodi Benson was chosen to play Ariel, and Sherri Lynn Stoner, a former member of Los Angeles' Groundlings improv comedy group, acted out Ariel's key scenes. Not all of Disney's animators approved of the use of live-action reference; one artist quit the project over the issue. An attempt to use Disney's famed multiplane camera for the first time in years for quality "depth" shots failed because the machine was reputedly in dilapidated condition.
Aside from its main animation facility in Glendale, California, Disney opened a satellite feature animation facility during the production of Mermaid near Orlando, Florida, within the still-unfinished Disney-MGM Studios Theme Park at Walt Disney World. Though the park opened to the public a year later, work at the animation studio began in May 1988, and the Disney-MGM facility's first projects were to produce an entire "Roger Rabbit" cartoon short, and contribute ink and paint support to Mermaid.
The Little Mermaid is the last Disney feature film to use the traditional hand-painted cel method of animation. Disney's next film, "The Rescuers Down Under", used a digital method of coloring and combining scanned drawings—CAPS (Computer Animation Production System), which eliminated the need for cels. A CAPS prototype was used experimentally on a few scenes in Mermaid, including the final wedding scene. Other CGI includes some of the wrecked ships in the final battle, a staircase behind a shot of Ariel in Eric's castle, and the carriage Eric and Ariel are riding in when she bounces it over a ravine. (Notice that the wheels aren't moving when it comes down for a landing.)
On November 15, 1989, The Little Mermaid began critics' screenings in Los Angeles and New York City. On November 17, 1989, the world premiere of The Little Mermaid took place near Orlando, Florida on all ten AMC Pleasure Island screens at Walt Disney World's newly-built Pleasure Island nightclub.
According to TheNumbers.com
1990 original run
1998 re-release run
- Two Wins
- Best Original Score
- Best Original Song - "Under the Sea"
- One Nomination
- Best Original Song - "Kiss the Girl"
Golden Globe Award
- Two Wins
- Best Original Score - Motion Picture
- Best Original Song - Motion Picture - "Under the Sea"
- Two Nominations
- Best Motion Picture - Comedy/Musical
- Best Original Song - Motion Picture
- One Win
- Best Song Written Specifically for a Motion Picture or for Television - "Under the Sea"
- Two Nominations
- Best Instrumental Composition Written for a Motion Picture or for Television
- Best Song Written Specifically for a Motion Picture or for Television
- BMI Film & TV Awards
- One Win: BMI Film Music Award
- Los Angeles Film Critics Association
- One Win: Best Animation
- Golden Screen Awards
- One Win: Golden Screen Award
- Golden Reel Awards
- One Win: Best Sound Editing - Animated Feature
- Young Artist Award
- One Win: Best Family Motion Picture - Adventure or Cartoon
TV series and sequels
- The animated series version of this movie titled The Little Mermaid premiered in late 1992.
- A direct-to-video sequel called The Little Mermaid II: Return to the Sea was released on September 19, 2000.
- The Little Mermaid: Ariel's Beginning, a direct-to-DVD prequel, was released on Disney DVD on August 26, 2008.
Theatrical release history
- November 2, 1989 (original release)
- November 6, 1997 (re-release)
Home video release history
- 1990 (VHS - Walt Disney Classics) - The film's home video debut was in May 1990 after a highly successful run at the box-office. Consumers made this the year's top-selling title on home video, with over 10 million units sold (including 7 million in its first month). It was one of the highest-selling home video titles ever at the time. On the cover of this version, one of the pillars on the golden castle bears an resemblance to a phallus, though it is a coincidence as said by Disney and the man who drew it, who in fact did not work for Disney. Most people believe it was done by a disgruntled artist, though this is far from true.
- 1998 (VHS - Walt Disney Masterpiece Collection) - The growing popularity of Disney films that peaked with The Lion King in 1994 ignited much interest in "The Little Mermaid" from new Disney fans and from a new generation of kids. By the time the movie was re-released on VHS in March 1998, millions of people were eager to set their hands on a copy. The VHS sold 13 million units and ranked as the 3rd best-selling title of the year on the VHS chart.
- 1999 (DVD - Limited Issue) - The film was included in the Limited Issue line and was released as a "barebones" DVD set with a poor video transfer and no substantial features.
- 2006 (DVD - Platinum Edition) - The film was re-released on DVD on October 3, 2006, as part of the Walt Disney Platinum Editions line of classic Walt Disney animated features. Deleted scenes, new musical sequences and several in-depth documentaries were included, as well as the Academy Award-nominated short film intended for the shelved Fantasia 2006, The Little Matchgirl.  On its opening day the DVD/Blu-ray Disc sold 1.6 million units, and in its first week, over 4 million units, making it the biggest animated DVD/Blu-ray Disc debut for October. It ranked second on the DVD sales chart and enjoyed the best first week sales of all the Platinum titles. The Special edition came out in the U.K on November 6, 2006.
- 2013(DVD/Blu-ray Disc - Diamond Edition) - The film is set to be re-released on October 1, 2013 as part of the Walt Disney Diamond Editions.
Voice actress Melissa Fahn auditioned for the role of Ariel, and was called back many times, but was turned down because she sounded a little too young.
Disc one (original soundtrack)
- Fathoms Below
- Main Titles (Score)
- Fanfare (Score)
- Daughters of Triton
- Part of Your World
- Under the Sea
- Part of Your World (Reprise)
- Poor Unfortunate Souls
- Les Poissons
- Kiss the Girl
- Fireworks (Score)
- Jig (Score)
- The Storm (Score)
- Descruction of the Grotto (Score)
- Flotsam and Jetsam (Score)
- Tour of the Kingdom (Score)
- Bedtime (Score)
- Wedding Announcement (Score)
- Eric to the Rescue (Score)
- Happy Ending (Score)
Disc two (bonus video and audio content)
- "Kiss the Girl" - performed by Ashley Tisdale
- "Poor Unfortunate Souls" - performed by Jonas Brothers
- "Part of Your World" - performed by Jessica Simpson
- "Under the Sea" - performed by Raven-Symoné
- MUSIC VIDEO – "Poor Unfortunate Souls" - performed by Jonas Brothers
- “MAKING OF” MUSIC VIDEO – "Kiss the Girl" - performed by Ashley Tisdale
A Broadway stage version is in the works, with Alan Menken working on the music and Doug Wright working on the book. A demo album was produced featuring Kerry Butler as Ariel and Emily Skinner as Ursula. There is dispute whether Cheyenne Jackson or Gavin Creel was the voice of Prince Eric on the demo. Sierra Boggess has been cast as Ariel; Norm Lewis will play King Triton, Sherie Rene Scott has been cast as Ursula, and Eddie Korbich will play Scuttle.
- After Ariel sings "Part of Your World" in her grotto, Sebastian falls from one of the shelves and is covered in all sorts of trinkets from Ariel's "Collection." He then scolds Ariel and rambles on about the Human World and what her father would do if he found out that she had this "collection." While Sebastian is talking, the camera angle switches from behind Sebastian's back, to in front of him, then behind, then in front, and so on. When the camera is in front of Sebastian, he clearly has a thimble on his foot. But when it shows his backside, the thimble is gone. On the 2006 DVD commentary, the artists clearly state that they were aware of this and many other mistakes throughout the movie, but they couldn't alter the scenes due to their low budget.
- When Grimsby first meets Vanessa, her hair is brown. But when Vanessa is in her room getting ready, her hair is black. Then, at the wedding scene, her hair is brown yet again, though this may be due the fact in the room she is not near the sun, and in the former said she is in the sun both times.
- When Scuttle breaks Ursula's necklace near Ariel's feet and releases Ariel's voice, Ariel is barefoot, but the next time Ariel is shown, full body, she is wearing shoes.
- In the scene where Ariel is going to sleep during her first day as a human, she sits on the bed and then lies down; after Sebastian extinguishes the candle in the room, Ariel is under the sheets, when a few moments later, she falls asleep without covering herself.
- "Fathoms Below" Alternate Version
- Backstage with Sebastian
- "Poor Unfortunate Souls" Alternate Version
- Sebastian Lost in the Castle
- Advice From Sebastian
- Fight With Ursula/Alternate Ending
- The film was originally planned as one of Disney's earliest films. Production started soon after Snow White, but was put on hold due to various circumstances.
- The idea for the movie was one of Walt Disney's favorites. In the 1980s, the Disney company did not know that Walt had intended to make a Little Mermaid film. The Disney Company thought of the idea independently. While in production in the 1980s, someone found Walt's Mermaid script by chance. Many of his changes to Hans Christian Andersen's original story were coincidentally the same as the changes made by Disney writers in the 1980s. (source: DVD making of)
- Glen Keane, the supervising animator for Ariel, jokingly stated on the 100 Greatest Cartoons DVD that Ariel looks exactly like his wife "without the fins." The character's body shape and personality were based upon that of Alyssa Milano, then starring on TV's Who's the Boss? and the effect of her hair underwater was based on footage of Sally Ride, when she was in space.
- In Ursula's spell to turn Ariel human, various references to the throat and voice are made, as well as references to fish.
- When Scuttle is providing "vocal romantic stimulation" while Eric and Ariel are out at the lagoon, he is actually squawking his own version of Tchaikovsky's "Romeo and Juliet".
- A number of backgrounds used during the "Kiss the Girl" number were recycled from Disney's earlier film The Rescuers.
- Ariel's position as Triton's youngest daughter is similar to David being Jesse's youngest son in David and Goliath although while Jesse had 8 sons, Triton had 7 daughters.
- The dress Carlotta wears is a larger version of the one used by Cinderella in Cinderella.
- The Little Mermaid ranks as #51 of the 100 Greatest Cartoons as voted in Great Britain.
- Near the start of the film when King Triton is seen riding a dolphin-pulled chariot over an audience of mermaids and mermen, Mickey Mouse, Donald Duck, and Goofy can be seen in the audience. Also, one of the audience members in this scene resembles Kermit the Frog.
- Divine was in part the inspiration for the design of Ursula the Sea Witch.
- In the contract Ursula has Ariel sign, there is a crude drawing of Mickey Mouse's head amongst a jumble of letters.
- During Scuttle's disruption of the wedding between Eric and Vanessa, The Grand Duke and King from Cinderella can be seen standing together in the background.
- In the scene after Ursula is destroyed, Ariel's pose as she looks longingly at Eric bears resemblance to the famous statue of Andersen's little Mermaid in Copenhagen (sculpted by Edward Eriksen).
- According to the DVD commentary, the shark that chases Ariel and Flounder at the beginning is named Glut, and he was planned to return for a rematch with Flounder later on.
- The characters of The Little Mermaid, and the kingdom of Atlantica, are featured in all three installments of the popular Square Enix series of Kingdom Hearts games. In the first game, Ariel is featured as a character who joins the party in battle. In Kingdom Hearts II, Atlantica serves as a world of musical mini-games rather than a traditional searching and battle area like in the first two games. Among the songs in the mini-games, new versions of two of the songs from the film, Part of Your World and Under the Sea are featured. Ariel is also the only official Disney Princess featured in the game who is not one of the fabled Princesses of Heart. Strangely, Alice of Alice in Wonderland is featured as a Princess of Heart, while unlike Ariel, she in no way a princess.
- The color that Disney Imagineers created for Ariel's tail was, in fact, created just for the movie and was aptly called "Ariel".
- On the main menu (disc 1) of Finding Nemo, one of the things Dory says is: "I'm so excited! I've always wanted to see The Little Mermaid!"
- When this film was re-released in theatres in 1997, some of the foreign translations were redubbed. The original dubbings were returned when the film was released on DVD.
- The first-ever Russian dubbing of this film was made in 2006. Prior to this, only a male voice was used on top of the English version.
- The original design for Ariel was showing her being completely covered in seaweed.
- Ariel has been compared to Disney heroines before her. She is most physically similar to Alice from Alice in Wonderland, even though she is closer in size to Kim Possible, and has a similar hair color to Phineas Flynn.
- In the original story, The Little Mermaid didn't have a happy ending.
- The Little Mermaid II: Return to the Sea
- The Little Mermaid: Ariel's Beginning
- List of Disney theatrical animated features
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