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The New Republic is a government in the Star Wars universe.
When the Rebel Alliance re-established the Old Republic after the defeat of the Galactic Empire, it became known as the New Republic, just as the original Galactic Republic had become known as the Old Republic by that time. The New Republic was founded on the same premise on which the Old Republic had been established twenty-five thousand years previously; to have a representative parliamentary body govern the galaxy in a fair and equal manner. It was designed to eradicate the shortcomings that brought about the Old Republic's downfall.
Government and politics
With the signing of the Galactic Concordance on Coruscant, the New Republic secured both victory and peace. Several changes were made to the political process to ensure mistakes of the Old Republic were not repeated. Despite dropping the "supreme" from the title, the post of Chancellor still held the emergency powers granted to Palpatine during the Old Republic's last years. To prevent further abuses of the office, Mon Mothma, the first chancellor of the New Republic, gave up these emergency powers and set forth a plan to give aid to war-torn worlds and bolster the training of their planetary defense forces so that they could defend themselves. Additionally, the Senate passed the Military Disarmament Act which, while maintaining the New Republic Starfleet, greatly reduced its size and capabilities.
The New Republic, in accordance with its humanitarian values prohibited torture as part of the Galactic Concordance, however the divisive topic on the treatment of former Imperials would occupy much heated debate. Some wished to execute and punish those responsible for war crimes, while others were dismayed at the thought of succumbing to the barbarities of the former regime, and emulating what they had fought so hard against. Ultimately, the fact that billions of individuals had participated in the Empire - many of them against their wishes - cooler heads prevailed, allowing for leniency in sentences and the invitation of former Imperial governors to the New Republic. Likewise, civilian and military personnel were offered a new life within the annals of the nascent Republic.
In order to gain the support of disaffected worlds and prevent friction that had occurred during the Old Republic and later the Empire, the New Republic government chose to not settle down on Coruscant. Instead, member worlds would host the capital on a rotating basis with elections deciding where to seat the Senate.
The Galactic Senate was founded in the aftermath of the Battle of Endor, when the Rebel Alliance founded the New Republic with the intention of replacing the fractured Galactic Empire as the primary government of the galaxy. After signing the Galactic Concordance, the peace treaty that brought an end to the Galactic Civil War, the Senate demilitarized the New Republic and set out to bring peace and harmony to the galaxy.
Mon Mothma, the first chancellor of the New Republic Senate, eliminated the emergency powers that had been given to the Supreme Chancellor - later Emperor - Palpatine during the Clone Wars. It was her intention for the Senate and the Republic to be a force for peace.
When the First Order, an organization formed by the remnants of the Empire, became known to the public, most members of the Galactic Senate, led by Chancellor Lanever Villecham, did not take them very seriously, partly due to them being small in numbers and mainly because they believe the First Order would follow the tenants of the Galactic Concordance; despite this, most members of the Senate were secretly funding and supported the Resistance, a military organization founded and led by Leia Organa, one of the founders of the New Republic, so they could defeat the First Order.
Most members of the Galactic Senate, knew if the First Order was left unchecked, that organization would not only eventually destroy New Republic, but everything they have worked hard to to rebuild, well other members of Senate do not openly support the Resistance, they at least tolerate that military organization's actions.
Approximately thirty years later, most members of the Galactic Senate, along with Chancellor Lanever, were killed, when Hosnian Prime (the capital of the New Republic) was destroyed by the Starkiller Base, as most members of the Senate were not in the Hosnian system; when it was destroyed.
Sometime after the downfall of the Galactic Empire and the founding of the New Republic, the Rebel Alliance was reorganized into the New Republic's military forces, however, after the Battle of Jakku had ended, and after the Empire had signed the Galactic Concordance, believing the remnants of the Galactic Empire, were no longer a threat, the Galactic Senate hastily passed the Military Disarmament Act; reducing their military size and capability, despite this, the New Republic army and the New Republic Starfleet are still formidable enough to protect planets that are members of the New Republic, from dangerous threats.
Sometime after the downfall of the Galactic Empire and the Battle of Endor, the New Republic was founding by Luke Skywalker, Leia Organa, Han Solo and Lando Calrissian; on the principles of the Old Republic.
For the last thirty years, there had been peace in the galaxy, approximately thirty years later, the First Order, an organization formed by the remnants of the Empire, became known to the public, however, most members of the Galactic Senate, led by Chancellor Lanever Villecham, did not take them very seriously, partly due to them being small in numbers and mainly because they believe the First Order would follow the tenants of the Galactic Concordance; until the destruction of the Hosnian system, the capital of New Republic, it can be assumed that New Republic's capital was moved to Coruscant.
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