The Coruscant Jedi Temple was originally built over an ancient Sith shrine in the hopes of sealing away the traces of the Dark side of the Force that emanated from the site, as well as taking advantage of the wellspring of Force energy that emanated from the area. Over time however, as the Dark side of the Force grew stronger, the evil aura of the Sith shrine seeped up into the temple, making it more and more difficult for the Jedi to foresee the future and weakening them.
The complex would be abandoned and largely destroyed at the time of the Declaration of a New Order when the Order by the Galactic Empire. When he became emperor, Palpatine converted the Coruscant Jedi Temple into his own personal palace. The building was rebuilt into an amalgam of dark colored, blockish edifices with sloping facades, with only the old spires rendered unharmed.
After the downfall of the Galactic Empire and the death of Palpatine, it is unknown what became of the Coruscant Jedi Temple.