The Galactic Republic was the name of the interplanetary State used in the fictional Star Wars universe prior to the establishment of the Galactic Empire. The form of this government, ruled by the Senate, was introduced in the Prequel Trilogy. By the time of the original Star Wars trilogy, it is referred to as the Old Republic. It was a democratic, though eventually ineffectual, constitutional republic tied up in layers of bureaucracy.
The Republic, as it was commonly known, was a republican government that was able to sustain itself for over twenty-five thousand years.
Government and politics
The Galactic Senate was led by a democratically elected Supreme Chancellor that held the ability to call for special sessions of congress, but could just as easily be removed as voted into office through a Vote of No Confidence from the various senators that served under them. Supporting the Supreme Chancellor was the Vice Chair, who would help set the agenda for the senate and call for votes on varying pieces legislation. Senators would represent varying worlds or sectors across the galaxy, while Senior Representatives could voice the opinions of a minority population or political party of an already represented planet. Despite this position, the Representative could not actively vote on or introduce new legislation, but could perform these duties if the instated senator was on a leave of absence or otherwise unavailable. Members of varying corporations, guilds, federations, and businesses received representation in the Senate, with members of the Trade Federation and others exploiting this position for monetary gain, and causing dissatisfied systems to view the Senate as corrupt.
The Galactic Senate was consisted of hundreds of senators who represented the many worlds of the galaxy, and was led by a Supreme Chancellor that was elected by and from the representatives. Its primary concern was mediating disputes between varying worlds and dictating the laws and regulations necessary to maintain the Republic.
The military forces of the Galactic Republic were found during the formation of Republic, it's goal was to protect planets that were members of the Republic, from dangerous threats, occasionally members of the Jedi Order become part of the army, only if it is absolutely necessary for the Jedi to get involve into a war.
By the events of Attack of the Clones, the Republic had no military or naval forces, due to the Military Creation Act, as their only military forces were members of the Jedi Order. This made them vulnerable to an invasion. Unknown to the people the galaxy, Jedi Master Sifo-Dyas contacted the Kaminoans, known for their clone hatcheries, and secretly commissioned them to create a clone army. He did this without the approval of the Jedi High Council or the Galactic Senate.
The Grand Army of the Republic fought in the Clone Wars, a war that would last for the next three years. By the end of war, the Republic Army/Navy was dissolved along with most members of the army and navy after the rise of the Galactic Empire. Members of the clone army became part of the Imperial Army/Navy; by force or of their own free will.
When Palpatine gained full control over the Galactic Senate, he dissolved the Galactic Republic and reorganized it into the Galactic Empire, becoming it's emperor, as it became nothing more than a tyrannical government, it had been referred to as the Old Republic by the people the galaxy, another reason why the Old Republic was destroyed by Palpatine; was due to the actions of the arrogant Jedi Master Mace Windu, as Mace's extremism enabled Palpatine to convert Anakin Skywalker to the way of the Sith and gave him the pretext he needed to activate clone protocal 66 and then declare himself emperor.
Approximately twenty-three years after the fall of the Old Republic, in the Battle of Endor, Palpatine was killed by the redeemed Anakin Skywalker/Darth Vader; ending his reign of terror once and for all, in the midst of the chaos caused by Palpatine's death, the Empire had suffered a crippling defeat, as the Rebel Alliance restored the Republic, as well as reorganizing itself into a new government, however, because it was founded on the principles of the Old Republic, it became known as the New Republic.
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